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Statewide IPM Program, University of California

Natural enemies gallery

Listed by scientific name

Cover of Natural Enemies Handbook

Natural enemies are organisms that kill, decrease the reproductive potential of, or otherwise reduce the numbers of another organism. Natural enemies that limit pests are key components of integrated pest management programs. Important natural enemies of insect and mite pests include predators, parasites, and pathogens.

The UC IPM Natural Enemies Gallery includes natural enemy species commonly found on California farms and in landscapes. Additional species will be added over time.

For more information about natural enemies, purchase the Natural Enemies Handbook also available as an ePub.


A predator is an organism that attacks, kills, and feeds on several to many other individuals (its prey) in its lifetime.

Scientific name Common name
Anthocoridae Family Minute pirate bugs
Aphidoletes aphidimyza Predaceous midge or aphid midge
Araneae order Spiders
Cantharidae Family Soldier beetles
Carabidae Family Predaceous ground beetles
Chilocorus orbus Twicestabbed lady beetle
Chrysopidae Family Green lacewings
Coccinella septempunctataSevenspotted lady beetle
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mealybug destroyer
Galendromus occidentalis Western predatory mite
Geocoridae Family Bigeyed bugs
Harmonia axyridis Multicolored Asian lady beetle
Hemerobiidae Family Brown lacewings
Hippodamia convergens Convergent lady beetle
Mantidae Family (Order Mantodea) Mantids, praying mantids
Nabidae Family Damsel bugs
Phytoseiulus persimilis Phytoseiulus persimilis
Reduviidae Family (Order Hemiptera) Assassin bugs
Rodolia cardinalis Vedalia beetle
Rumina decollata Decollate snail
Scolothrips sexmaculatus Sixspotted thrips
Syrphidae Family (Order Diptera) Syrphid flies

Insect Parasites (parasitoids)

Larval stages of insect parasites parasitize other insects, killing their hosts just as they mature. Adults are free-living wasps or flies.

Scientific name Common name
Anaphes iole, Anaphes nitens, and other Anaphes spp. Anaphes species
Aphidius spp. Aphidius species
Aphytis spp. Aphytis spp., armored scale parasites
Bracon cushmani Bracon cushmani, grape leaffolder parasite
Cotesia medicaginis Cotesia medicaginis, alfalfa butterfly parasite
Cryptochaetum iceryae Cottony cushion scale parasite
Encarsia formosa Encarsia formosa, whitefly parasite
Erynniopsis antennata Elm leaf beetle parasite
Hyposoter exigua Hyposoter exigua, caterpillar parasite
Leptomastix dactylopii Citrus mealybug parasite
Lysiphlebus testaceipes Lysiphlebus testaceipes, aphid parasite
Tachinidae Family (Order Diptera) Tachinid flies
Trioxys pallidus Trioxys pallidus, walnut aphid parasite
Trichogramma spp. Trichogramma spp., egg parasites

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